Minnesota weeds (Here are the most common)

Minnesota is home to a wide variety of weed species that can cause significant damage to crops, gardens, and natural habitats. Many of these weeds are invasive, meaning that they are not native to the area and can outcompete native plants.

Invasive weeds can be challenging to control, as they often have rapid growth rates and can develop resistance to herbicides. Effective weed management strategies typically involve a combination of cultural, mechanical, and chemical control methods. 

Preventing the spread of weeds is also crucial, as many weed species can produce a large number of seeds that can remain viable in the soil for years.

clumps of weeds

Table of Contents

Minnesota weeds

Name of weed Family
Barnyardgrass Paniceae
Bindweed Convolvulaceae
Bittercress Brassicaceae
Black Medic Legume
Canada thistle Asteraceae
Chickweed Caryophyllaceae
Cocklebur Asteraceae
Crabgrass Poaceae
Creeping Charlie Lamiaceae
Dandelion Asteraceae
Foxtail Poaceae
Henbit Lamiaceae
Jerusalem artichoke Asteraceae
Lambsquarters Amaranthaceae
Palmer amaranth Amaranthaceae
Perennial sowthistle Asteraceae
Pigweed Amaranthaceae
Purslane Portulacaceae
Quackgrass Poaceae
Ragweed Asteraceae
Torpedograss Poaceae
Velvetleaf Malvaceae
Waterhemp Amaranthaceae
White Clover Apiaceae
Wild oat Poaceae
Wild proso millet Poaceae
Yellow nutsedge Cyperaceae

Barnyardgrass

Barnyardgrass is a widespread annual grass weed found in both cultivated and non-cultivated areas throughout the United States. It prefers moist soils but can also tolerate dry conditions. Young plants have brown and red stripes near the bottom of their leaves, which form tufts, spikes, or dense clusters that can grow up to 120 cm in height.

The panicles are relatively long, reaching up to 20 cm in length, and are often bristly, containing short or long awns. Barnyardgrass seeds are highly durable, with a lifespan of up to 15 years, making them challenging to eradicate once they become established.

Type

Annual

Family

Paniceae

Control

Removing barnyardgrass by hand is the most effective method, ensuring that the entire root system is removed. However, this can be a laborious process, especially when dealing with large infestations. Herbicides can also be used to control barnyardgrass, but frequent and careful application of these chemicals is necessary to prevent regrowth.

It is important to note that herbicides can also harm other plants if not used properly, so caution should be exercised when applying them. Additionally, maintaining a healthy lawn through proper watering, fertilization, and aeration can help prevent the growth and spread of barnyardgrass.

Barnyardgrass

Bindweed

Bindweed, with its pretty lilac trumpet-shaped flowers, can be easily mistaken for the morning glory. However, it is actually a climbing vine that can grow uncontrollably. Once it wraps around any structure, it can quickly engulf other plants in its path, suffocating them by depriving them of sunlight.

Bindweed is known to completely cover other plants and eventually choke them, making it a troublesome weed to deal with. This aggressive weed thrives better in drier soils, adding to its ability to grow unchecked and take over large areas of the lawn or garden.

Type

Perennial

Family

Convolvulaceae

Control

To control the growth of bindweed in infested areas, it is crucial to ensure that flower beds and gardens are watered regularly, as bindweed thrives in dry soil. For extensive infestations, begin by irrigating the area. When bindweed weeds develop, use glyphosate application to treat the area before planting desirable plants.

Subsequently, restrict the regrowth of bindweed by utilizing pre-emergent herbicides or mulch. It is important to note that glyphosate can harm other plants if not used properly, so caution should be exercised when applying it. Additionally, maintaining a healthy lawn through proper watering, fertilization, and aeration can help prevent the growth and spread of bindweed.

garden beds Bindweed

Bittercress

Bittercress is an annual broadleaf weed that reproduces by spreading its seeds. It has a bitter taste and thrives in sunny, moist areas of lawns or gardens. This weed can be identified by its small white flowers and its tendency to spread out over the ground.

Bittercress is challenging to control due to its quick-spreading and germination capability from even the slightest soil disturbance. Additionally, it can tolerate some herbicides, making it important to choose the right product to control this weed. 

It is essential to take proactive measures to prevent the growth and spread of bittercress, including maintaining a healthy lawn through regular mowing, watering, and fertilization, as well as using pre-emergent and post-emergent herbicides to control its growth.

Type

Annual

Family

Brassicaceae

Control

Maintaining a healthy and thick lawn is an effective way to prevent the growth and spread of weeds like bittercress. A healthy lawn can block the sprouting of weeds and crowd them out if they manage to grow. The most effective way to control bittercress is by using a pre-emergent application in the fall.

However, a post-emergent herbicide can also be used while the weed is actively growing. It is important to apply the herbicide carefully to avoid harming other plants. Additionally, regular mowing, watering, and fertilization can help keep the lawn healthy and prevent the growth of bittercress and other weeds.

Bittercress

Black Medic

Black medic is a small annual weed with yellow flowers and clover-like leaves. It has a shallow root system, making it easy to pull out of the soil, but it can spread quickly if not controlled in time. Its deep roots can draw much-needed moisture from the soil, making it the first line of defense against larger weeds like dandelions.

Type

Annual

Family

Legume

Control

Pre-emergent control is ideal for black medic because it can prevent other weeds from growing in areas where black medic has been eliminated. However, post-emergent herbicides may be necessary if black medic has already established itself. Maintaining a healthy lawn through regular watering, fertilization, and aeration can also prevent the growth and spread of black medic and other weeds.

Black Medic

Canada thistle

Canada thistle is a prevalent perennial weed found in regions across Canada and the United States. Its distinguishing feature is its thick, erect stems with sharp spines along the edges. Clusters of small, purple-hued flowers grow on spikes at the top of each stem. This weed has deep, underground roots that spread via rhizomes, setting it apart from other types of perennial weeds.

Type

Perennial

Family

Asteraceae

Control

The most effective way to control Canada thistle is by preventing its spread. Early removal of the plants by pulling or digging can reduce their numbers. For large infestations, herbicides containing 2,4-D can eliminate Canada thistle. Mowing before flowering can also prevent the plant from seeding. However, it is important to note that completely getting rid of Canada thistle is challenging, and repeated treatments may be necessary.

It is also crucial to use herbicides carefully to avoid harming other plants, and to follow the instructions on the label for best results. Additionally, maintaining a healthy lawn through proper watering, fertilization, and aeration can help prevent the growth and spread of Canada thistle and other weeds.

Thistle

Chickweed

Chickweed is a creeping winter weed that germinates in cool temperatures and can quickly overgrow large patches of gardens or lawns. It can be identified by the mats of foliage it forms on the ground and the small white flowers. Chickweed thrives in moist areas, making it challenging to control as it has the potential to spread quickly.

Type

Annual

Family

Caryophyllaceae

Control

Preventing chickweed from taking root is the best way to keep it away from lawns. To prevent its growth, it is recommended to avoid overwatering the lawn and to raise the mower blade, especially in the autumn season. This will help maintain a healthy lawn and prevent the growth and spread of chickweed.

Additionally, regular mowing, watering, and fertilization can help keep the lawn healthy and prevent the growth of chickweed and other weeds. If chickweed has already established itself, a post-emergent herbicide may be necessary to control its growth.

Chickweed close up

Cocklebur

Cocklebur is a tap-rooted weed that typically grows up to 4 feet tall and can be identified by its single, stout, green stem. The stem is often speckled with purple and has finely grooved, hairy side branches. This weed is commonly found in waste places, low ground, and along roadsides. Cocklebur is self-compatible, reproduces from seed, and is pollinated by wind.

Type

Annual

Family

Asteraceae

Control

Mowing or discing cockleburs during the flowering stage is an effective way to control their growth. However, as resprouting may occur after mowing, a secondary treatment may be necessary. It is important to note that cut-off plants with immature burs can still develop viable seeds.

To prevent the growth of cockleburs, applying a pre-emergent herbicide in the spring before the weed emerges is recommended. It is crucial to use herbicides appropriately by following the instructions on the label to avoid harming other plants and to ensure the best results. 

Additionally, maintaining a healthy lawn through regular watering, fertilization, and aeration can help prevent the growth and spread of cockleburs and other weeds.

life cycle of Cocklebur

Crabgrass

Crabgrass is an annual weed with a low, spreading growth habit and thin blades. It can be difficult to manage as it spreads quickly and can germinate from even minor soil disturbances. Crabgrass thrives in warm weather and full sun conditions, making it most active during the summer months. The weed gets its name from the crab-like legs that protrude from the stem.

Type

Annual

Family

Poaceae

Control

Crabgrass is an opportunistic weed that can take over thin or bare areas of your lawn. Applying a pre-emergent herbicide in the spring is the best way to prevent it. If crabgrass does appear, post-emergent herbicides can help control it.

Regular lawn mowing can also help manage crabgrass and allow more sunlight into thin areas, making it less likely to take hold. Core aeration is another effective method as it reduces soil compaction, which can inhibit the growth of crabgrass.

crabgrass stems

Creeping Charlie

Creeping Charlie, also known as ground ivy, is a weed with creeping stems that grow along the ground. It can be identified by its green vine, round leaves, and purple flowers. This low-growing weed forms a mat-like cover and thrives in damp and wet areas throughout, including hedgerows, waste areas, woodland margins, and shady locations. It can also survive in sunny areas, making it challenging to control.

Type

Perennial

Family

Lamiaceae

Control

Maintaining a healthy lawn is crucial to prevent the growth of creeping Charlie, which thrives on an unhealthy lawn. This weed can be challenging to remove once it takes root in the lawn. Most broadleaf herbicides are ineffective in eradicating creeping Charlie, and hand-pulling is only suitable for a few weeds.

For a large patch, using a professional-grade herbicide in the autumn season is recommended. It is important to use herbicides appropriately and follow the instructions on the label to avoid harming other plants.

Creeping Charlie

Dandelion

Dandelions are a popular and hardy perennial weed that can survive freezing temperatures. They produce blooms that emerge from a single stem and flat, spear-shaped leaves that produce a milky sap. 

Seed heads can be seen emerging from the flowers, which children often pluck and blow across the garden, leading to the rapid spread of the weed.

Dandelions prefer acidic soils, which makes it difficult to control their growth. The far-reaching seed pods can sprout hundreds of new shoots, making it challenging to manage this weed. Regular mowing, hand-pulling, and the use of herbicides can help control its growth, but it may require multiple treatments to eradicate completely.

Type

Perennial

Family

Asteraceae

Control

Controlling dandelion weed can be achieved by manually removing it from the root using a trowel or fork or by using herbicides such as glyphosate or 2,4-D. The effectiveness of herbicides depends on the timing of application, and it is recommended to apply them during the fall season when the weed is actively growing.

Maintaining a healthy lawn through regular mowing, fertilizing, and watering can also help prevent the growth of dandelion weed. Applying lime to the soil can help reduce its acidity, which dandelions prefer.

Dandelions

Foxtail

Foxtail is an annual grass weed that grows in a bushy manner, with long, pointed leaf blades and small spikes at the end of its stems that resemble the tail of a fox. This fast-growing weed can be found in lawns, gardens, and fields throughout North America.

Type

Annual

Family

Poaceae

Control

Preventing foxtail from germinating can be achieved by applying a pre-emergent herbicide in the spring. For an existing foxtail infestation, using a post-emergent herbicide specifically labeled for foxtail is the best option.

Carefully following the instructions is crucial. Hand-pulling or hoeing can also be effective but is time-consuming. Maintaining a healthy lawn or garden through proper fertilization, watering, and regular mowing can help prevent the growth of foxtail and other weeds.

Foxtail

Henbit

Henbit is an annual broadleaf weed with a low-growing habit that can quickly spread and take over areas in lawns with weak turf throughout the growing season. Its leaves are oval with serrated edges, while its tubular flowers are purple in color. Henbit has a fibrous root system that allows it to grow up to 16 inches tall. Its reddish-purple flowers have dark spots on the lower petals and typically germinate in early fall or winter.

Type

Annual

Family

Lamiaceae

Control

Roundup is effective in controlling Henbit, but it should only be applied during the weed’s active growth period. Maintaining a healthy lawn through regular watering and fertilization is the best way to control Henbit. Using pre-emergent herbicides can also prevent new weeds from germinating.

Henbit

Jerusalem artichoke

Jerusalem artichoke, also known as Helianthus tuberosus, is a perennial weed that belongs to the Asteraceae family. It is native to North America but has been introduced to other parts of the world, including Hawaii, where it has become invasive and is considered a weed. Jerusalem artichoke can grow up to ten feet tall and produces small, sunflower-like flowers.

Type

Perennial

Family

Asteraceae

Control

To manage Jerusalem artichoke, it is important to remove it before it goes to seed. This can be done by hand-pulling or using a hoe to cut the stem below the soil surface. Mulching can also help to suppress growth and prevent seed germination.

If chemical control is necessary, herbicides containing glyphosate or triclopyr can be effective. However, it is important to follow label instructions carefully and use caution to avoid damage to non-target plants. In some cases, repeated applications may be necessary to fully control Jerusalem artichoke.

Jerusalem artichoke

Lambsquarters

With a low to medium growth habit and small, white flowers, this weed species is commonly found in gardens and lawns. It has the ability to spread rapidly if left uncontrolled. The leaves of this weed have a unique diamond shape and are smooth on the upper surface, while the underside appears whitish. Additionally, it produces small greenish-white flowers that are clustered together. This weed is known as Lambsquarters and is an annual plant species.

Type

Annual

Family

Amaranthaceae

Control

To effectively control this weed, the use of selective broadleaf herbicides like 2,4-D or dicamba (Weed Master) is recommended. Physical removal is also an option, but it is important to ensure that all parts of the plant, including its roots, are removed.

Lambsquarters

Palmer amaranth

Palmer amaranth is an annual weed species that belongs to the Amaranthaceae family. This weed species is native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. 

It is a highly competitive weed that can grow up to 10 feet tall and produce up to a million seeds per plant. Palmer amaranth is a dioecious plant, meaning that it has separate male and female plants. This weed species is particularly challenging to control due to its rapid growth and ability to develop resistance to herbicides.

Palmer amaranth is a highly invasive and competitive weed species that can cause significant damage to crops. Its ability to develop herbicide resistance and produce a large number of seeds makes it challenging to control.

Type

Annual

Family

Amaranthaceae

Control

Effective methods of controlling Palmer amaranth include a combination of cultural, mechanical, and chemical control methods. Cultural methods include crop rotation, planting cover crops, and reducing soil disturbance. Mechanical control methods involve hand-pulling or cutting the weed below the soil surface. 

Chemical control methods include the application of herbicides such as glyphosate, dicamba, and 2,4-D. However, it is crucial to follow label instructions carefully and use caution to avoid damage to non-target plants.

Palmer amaranth

Perennial sowthistle

Perennial sowthistle is a weed species belonging to the Asteraceae family. It is a perennial plant that reproduces through seeds and underground rhizomes. 

This weed species is native to Europe and Asia but has become naturalized in many parts of North America. Perennial sowthistle can grow up to six feet tall and has yellow flowers that bloom in the summer.

Perennial sowthistle is a highly invasive weed species that can cause significant damage to crops and natural habitats. Its extensive root system and ability to regenerate from underground rhizomes make it challenging to control.

Type

Perennial

Family

Asteraceae

Control

Controlling perennial sowthistle can be challenging due to its extensive root system and ability to regenerate from underground rhizomes. Effective control methods include a combination of cultural, mechanical, and chemical control methods. 

Cultural methods include crop rotation, planting cover crops, and maintaining healthy soil. Mechanical control methods involve hand-pulling or cutting the weed below the soil surface. Chemical control methods include the application of herbicides such as glyphosate, 2,4-D, and dicamba.

Perennial sowthistle

Pigweed

Amaranthus retroflexus, commonly known as Pigweed, is an annual weed belonging to the Amaranthaceae family. It is prevalent in gardens, croplands, and disturbed areas across Kentucky. Pigweed has a height potential of up to 6 feet and features green or red diamond-shaped leaves. It produces small green flowers that later transform into numerous tiny seeds.

Type

Annual

Family

Amaranthaceae

Control

Combining various methods is necessary to control Pigweed effectively. Preventing seed production is crucial to successful weed control. Applying herbicides such as glyphosate, 2,4-D, or dicamba to actively growing, small Pigweed can be effective.

For small infestations, hand-pulling can also be useful, although it can be time-consuming for larger areas. Proper lawn maintenance, herbicides, and hand-pulling are all necessary methods to control Pigweed effectively.

pigweed

Purslane

Purslane, scientifically known as Portulaca oleracea, is a leafy green vegetable with small verdant leaves, red stems, and a high water content of 93%. 

Despite being considered a weed by some, this plant is a nutritious and delicious food source that can be consumed in various raw or cooked dishes. Purslane is also known by other names such as pigweed, fatweed, little hogweed, and pusley.

Purslane is a healthy food option as it contains more omega-3 fatty acids than any other leafy vegetable. It is also rich in vitamins B and C, iron, magnesium, calcium, and potassium, making it a great source of essential nutrients. Purslane’s nutritional value and versatility in the kitchen make it a valuable addition to a balanced diet.

Type

Annual

Family

Portulacaceae

Control

To eliminate purslane, manual extraction or chemical control methods can be used. Conserving soil moisture through rainfall or irrigation can help reduce its spread. For effective control, broadleaf herbicides such as Weed Master or 2,4-D can be used.

Purslane

Quackgrass

Quackgrass is a perennial weed species with v-shaped leaves that grows up to two feet tall. During the summer, it produces small white flowers. Its rapid spread is attributed to the creeping roots that can generate new shoots in other areas. Quackgrass thrives in moist soil conditions and will typically wilt when the soil becomes too dry.

Type

Perennial

Family

Poaceae

Control

Preventing the growth of quackgrass is the most effective method of control. Removing any sprouting quackgrass before it spreads its seeds is crucial. Another option is to apply pre-emergent herbicides to prevent new quackgrass plants from emerging.

quackgrass

Ragweed

Ragweed is a common and unwanted weed that often appears in lawns. This annual weed has long stems and grows tall, producing small yellowish-green flowers that generate a considerable amount of pollen, causing hay fever and allergies. Ragweed thrives in warm and sunny areas such as gardens, fields, lawns, and roadsides. Its seeds can be easily spread from one place to another by wind or animals, making it a highly dispersible weed species.

Type

Annual

Family

Asteraceae

Control

Prevention is the most effective method of managing ragweed. Regular lawn mowing can help control its growth and prevent it from producing seeds. Hand-pulling can also be useful, especially when the plant is young. However, it is crucial to dispose of the weed carefully as ragweed can easily regrow.

ragweed can cause allergies

Torpedograss

Panicum repens, commonly known as torpedograss, is a perennial plant that can grow up to 3 feet (1 meter) tall. It has long creeping rhizomes, which are horizontal underground stems, and its rhizome tips resemble torpedoes in shape. This fast-spreading weed can quickly take over turf if left uncontrolled.

Type

Perennial

Family

Poaceae

Control

Controlling torpedograss requires applying preemergent herbicides in early spring when temperatures reach 55°F (13°C). Post-emergent herbicides should be applied during the summer months when the weeds are actively growing.

Regular mowing and watering can also help prevent the growth and spread of this weed, especially if any infestations are caught early on. It is important to use herbicides appropriately and follow the instructions on the label to avoid harming other plants and ensure the best results.

Torpedograss weed

Velvetleaf

Abutilon theophrasti, commonly known as Velvetleaf, is an annual weed that belongs to the Malvaceae family. Native to Asia, it can be found in gardens, fields, and waste areas. Velvetleaf has an erect growth habit and can grow up to six feet tall. Its name is derived from the velvety texture of its large, heart-shaped leaves.

Velvetleaf is considered a weed because of its ability to spread rapidly and compete with other plants and trees for resources. Its growth can be detrimental to other plant species, making it important to manage and control the weed.

Type

Annual

Family

Malvaceae

Control

Managing velvetleaf involves removing it before it goes to seed by hand-pulling or cutting the stem below the soil surface using a hoe. Mulching can also help suppress growth and prevent seed germination.

If chemical control is necessary, herbicides containing glyphosate or sethoxydim can be effective. However, caution must be taken to avoid damage to non-target plants by following label instructions carefully. Repeated applications may also be necessary to fully control velvetleaf.

Velvetleaf

Waterhemp

Waterhemp is an annual weed species that belongs to the Amaranthaceae family. It is native to North America and can be found in many parts of the United States. 

Waterhemp is a highly competitive weed that can grow up to eight feet tall and produce up to a million seeds per plant. This weed species is particularly challenging to control due to its rapid growth and ability to develop resistance to herbicides.

Type

Annual

Family

Amaranthaceae

Control

Effective methods of controlling waterhemp include a combination of cultural, mechanical, and chemical weed control products and methods. Cultural methods include crop rotation, planting cover crops, and reducing soil disturbance. 

Mechanical control methods involve hand-pulling or cutting the weed below the soil surface. Chemical control methods include the application of herbicides such as glyphosate, dicamba, and 2,4-D.

Waterhemp

White Clover

In Utah, white clovers are the most common type of clovers. They are recognizable by their white, puffy blooms and leaves that typically have a pale white “V” on them. This weed species has a low growth habit and can rapidly cover an entire lawn. White clover is active during the late spring, summer, and autumn seasons. It tends to thrive in lawns that are lacking nitrogen.

Type

Perennial

Family

Apiaceae

Control

To prevent the growth and spread of white clover and common lawn weeds, proper lawn maintenance is crucial. Applying pre-emergent herbicides can help control the invasion of white clover and other lawn weeds. In cases where white clover has already been established, post-emergent herbicides should be applied to eradicate the weed effectively.

early fall white clover

Wild oat

Wild oat is an annual weed species that belongs to the Poaceae family. It is native to Europe and Asia but has become naturalized in many parts of North America. 

Wild oat can grow up to four feet tall and produces seeds that can remain viable in the soil for up to five years. This weed species is particularly challenging to control due to its ability to develop resistance to herbicides.

Wild oat is a highly invasive and competitive weed species that can cause significant damage to crops. Its ability to develop herbicide resistance and produce viable seeds makes it challenging to control. 

Therefore, a combination of cultural, mechanical, and chemical control methods is necessary to manage this weed effectively.

Type

Annual

Family

Poaceae

Control

Effective methods of controlling wild oat include a combination of cultural, mechanical, and chemical control methods. Cultural methods include crop rotation, planting cover crops, and maintaining healthy soil. 

Mechanical control methods involve hand-pulling or cutting the weed below the soil surface. Chemical control methods include the application of herbicides such as glyphosate, 2,4-D, and dicamba.

Wild oat

Wild proso millet

Wild proso millet is an annual weed species that belongs to the Poaceae family. It is a summer annual grass that is native to Asia and Europe but has become naturalized in many parts of North America. 

Wild proso millet can grow up to three feet tall and produces seeds that can remain viable in the soil for up to five years. This weed species is particularly challenging to control due to its rapid growth and ability to develop resistance to herbicides.

Wild proso millet is a highly invasive and competitive weed species that can cause significant damage to crops. Its ability to develop herbicide resistance and produce viable seeds makes it challenging to control. Therefore, a combination of cultural, mechanical, and chemical control methods is necessary to manage this weed effectively.

Type

Annual

Family

Poaceae

Control

Effective methods of controlling wild proso millet include a combination of cultural, mechanical, and chemical control methods. Cultural methods include crop rotation, planting cover crops, and maintaining healthy soil. 

Mechanical control methods involve hand-pulling or cutting the weed below the soil surface. Chemical control methods include the application of herbicides such as glyphosate, 2,4-D, and dicamba.

Wild proso millet

Yellow nutsedge

Belonging to the Cyperaceae family, Yellow nutsedge, scientifically known as Cyperus esculentus, is a perennial weed with yellowish-brown flowers and triangular stems that resemble grass. 

This weed species is commonly found in wet or poorly drained areas such as lawns, gardens, and agricultural fields. Due to its extensive root system and ability to regenerate from small pieces of tubers, it is considered one of the most difficult weeds to control.

As a perennial plant, Yellow nutsedge can survive for several years and reproduce through underground tubers. These tubers are capable of producing new plants, making it challenging to eradicate the weed. Hence, effective control measures are necessary to prevent the spread of Yellow nutsedge and protect the health of other plants in the area.

Type

Perennial

Family

Cyperaceae

Control

Due to its extensive root system and the ability to regenerate from small pieces of tubers, controlling yellow nutsedge can be challenging. Improving drainage to reduce moisture levels is one approach, as this weed thrives in wet or poorly drained areas.

Physical removal of the weed, including the entire root system, is necessary to prevent regrowth. Herbicides containing chlorsulfuron-methyl or sulfentrazone can also be effective, but it is important to follow label instructions carefully and use caution to avoid damage to non-target plants.

Yellow Nutsedge
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Oliver Wright
Oliver Wright

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