How to Make Bone Meal: A Clear and Simple Guide

Bone meal is a natural fertilizer made from crushed and ground animal bones, predominantly sourced from the byproducts of meat processing. It’s rich in phosphorus, calcium, and other essential nutrients that play a vital role in plant growth and development. In particular, the high phosphorus content promotes robust root systems, stimulates flowering, and enhances fruit production.

Bone Meal

Table of Contents

How to make bone meal

To create bone meal, begin by boiling the bones for 1-2 hours to eliminate any remaining meat and fat. Afterwards, dry them completely using an oven, dehydrator, or air-drying. You can grind the bones into a fine powder with a mortar and pestle, rolling pin, or blender. Steaming the bones before grinding can make the process easier by reducing their hardness. It is important to maintain a clean workspace to prevent cross-contamination and perform each step with caution, taking all necessary measures to ensure cleanliness.

bone meal for plants

How to Make Bone Meal at Home

Making bone meal at home is an economical and environmentally friendly way to create an organic fertilizer for your garden. Here is the step-by-step process for creating your own bone meal fertilizer at home:

First, ensure that you have collected animal bones that are free from meat. If needed, you can gently boil the bones to remove any remaining meat. Once the bones are clean, allow them to dry. The drier they are, the easier they will be to process.

You have several options for drying the bones. Some prefer using an oven, while others may use a dehydrator. If you are using an oven, preheat to the lowest setting and place the bones on a baking sheet. Bake the bones for around 8-12 hours, checking on them periodically to ensure they are completely dry and not burnt. If you opt for a dehydrator, follow the manufacturer’s instructions for drying times.

Once the bones are completely dry, it is time to crush them into a fine powder. There are multiple methods to achieve this:

  1. Mortar and pestle: This traditional method allows for a good amount of control when grinding the bones. Place small amounts of the dried bones into the mortar and grind them using a pestle until they reach a fine powder consistency.

  2. Rolling pin: Place the dried bones in a plastic zipper bag or between sheets of parchment paper, and use a rolling pin to crush the bones into small pieces, then into a fine powder.

  3. Blender: For those who prefer a quicker method, using a high-powered blender might be the best choice. Add small amounts of dried bones to the blender and pulse until they are reduced to a fine powder. Be careful not to overload the blender, as this may cause damage or overheating.

With a fine bone meal powder in hand, store it in an airtight container away from direct sunlight. This will prevent any moisture from getting in and spoiling your homemade bone meal too.

mortar and pestle for bones

What Is Bone Meal

Bone meal is a type of organic fertilizer made from the ground-up bones of animals, typically livestock or fish. It is a valuable source of nutrients and minerals for plants, which can help promote healthier and stronger growth. As an organic fertilizer, bone meal is preferred by many gardeners who aim to maintain a more eco-friendly and sustainable gardening practice.

The bones used to make an organic bone meal are cleaned of fat and steamed before being ground into a fine powder or granules. This process ensures that the resulting bone meal is free of bacteria and pathogens, making it safe for plants and the environment.

Organic bone meal is a rich source of phosphorus, which is essential for proper root development and flowering in plants. In addition to phosphorus, bone meal also contains small amounts of nitrogen and calcium, which are necessary for overall plant growth and health.

When using bone meal as a fertilizer, be cautious with the application rate. Excessive quantities can lead to an imbalance in nutrient levels, which may negatively affect plant growth. It is also important to note that the effectiveness of a bone meal fertilizer is influenced by the pH of the soil. Ideally, the soil should have a balanced pH level between 6 and 7.5 for the phosphorus in bone meal to be efficiently absorbed by the plants.

liquid bone meal fertilizer or powdered bone meal source

Types of Bones

When making bone meal, it is essential to consider the types of bones used. Each type of bone offers various benefits and characteristics, making them suitable for specific purposes.

Beef bones are large, dense, and rich in nutrients due to their size. They provide ample amounts of calcium and phosphorus, which are essential for strong plant growth. Beef bones are commonly used for bone meal production because they are readily available and offer excellent nutritional value.

Pork bones are smaller than beef bones but still have a high nutrient content. They are a popular choice for making bone meal because they are more accessible and easier to handle. When processed, pork bones yield a finer bone meal powder, making them a suitable option for gardeners who prefer a more delicate texture.

Chicken bones are smaller and more brittle than beef or pork bones. They contain less calcium and phosphorus per bone, but their small size and increased surface area make them more easily digestible by plants. Their delicate structure allows them to break down faster in the soil, providing nutrients to plants more quickly than larger bones.

Turkey bones are similar to chicken bones in terms of size and texture, but their larger size provides slightly more nutrients per bone. Turkey bones are a good alternative to chicken bones for making bone meal, as they break down in a similar manner and offer similar benefits to your plants.

Livestock bones, such as those from sheep and goats, can also be used to make bone meal. They usually have a higher fat content than bones from larger animals like cows or pigs. It is necessary to remove the fat before processing these bones, as it can lead to mold growth and spoilage.

chicken bones

The Nutrient Composition of Bone Meal

Bone meal is a valuable organic fertilizer packed with essential nutrients that can significantly improve the health and growth of plants. It is made from steamed animal bones and slaughterhouse waste products, which are ground into a fine powder or granules for application on plants or crops.

One of the vital nutrients present in bone meal is phosphorus. This element plays a crucial role in the development of robust root systems, flowering, and fruiting. High phosphorus content helps plants grow strong and healthy, making bone meal an excellent choice for improving plant growth.

Another prominent component of bone meal is calcium. This nutrient is essential for the formation of cell walls and the overall structural integrity of the plant. Calcium also helps plants absorb other nutrients more efficiently.

In addition to phosphorus and calcium, bone meal contains trace amounts of other nutrients such as iron, zinc, and magnesium. These nutrients contribute to the overall well-being of the plant and ensure its ability to perform processes like photosynthesis and respiration.

The typical nutrient composition of bone meal can be summarized as follows:

  • High in phosphorus

  • Rich in calcium

  • Low amounts of iron, zinc, and magnesium

While bone meal offers a strong, nutrient-rich boost to plants, it is important to remember that its nutrient composition may vary depending on the source of the bones and the manufacturing process.

high in phosphorus

Testing and Adjusting Soil pH

When preparing to use bone meal in your garden, you need to first test and adjust the soil pH. A balanced soil pH of 6 to 7.5 is essential for the phosphorus in bone meal to benefit your plants. To determine your garden soil it’s pH, use a soil test and follow the instructions provided.

If your soil test reveals that the pH levels are too low (acidic soil), you can raise the pH by adding lime, a commonly used soil amendment. For soils with high alkalinity, i.e., pH levels above 7.5, incorporating sulfur can help lower the pH and create a more neutral environment.

Remember to apply the recommended amounts of lime or sulfur, as excessive amounts could harm your plants. Make sure to evenly distribute the amendments on the soil’s surface and gently work them in, watering the area afterwards to help dissolve and activate the amendments. After adjusting the soil pH, wait a few weeks before conducting another soil test to see if further amendments are needed.

Once you’ve reached the optimal pH range, you can confidently use bone meal to provide your plants with the essential nutrients they need to thrive. 

soil ph testing

Applying Bone Meal in Your Garden

Gardeners can find bone meal at most garden centers, typically available in powder or granular form. It is usually made from the bones of animals, such as cattle, that have been steamed and ground up. It is safe to apply to any type of garden, including vegetable beds, flower borders, and landscape plants.

To apply homemade bone meal fertilizer in your garden, it is important to know the square footage of the area you wish to treat. Generally, use 10 pounds of bone meal for every 100 square feet. Spread the bone meal evenly across the soil surface and then mix it into the top 3-6 inches of soil. This helps to incorporate the bone meal into the soil and make the nutrients more accessible to plant roots.

If you are using bone meal in containers or individual plants, follow the package instructions for the appropriate amount to apply per pot or plant size. Avoid excessive application, as too much bone meal can lead to an imbalance of nutrients in the soil.

It is best to apply bone meal in early spring or fall when plants are either beginning or ending their active growth period. This enables the plants to absorb the phosphorus from bone meal good, when they need it most for root development and flowering.

vegetable garden bone meal


In conclusion, making bone meal at home is a practical and environmentally-friendly way to utilize leftover bones from meat preparation. By following a few simple steps, anybody can create their own nutrient-rich bone meal to improve the health of their plants. To make your own bone meal first, boil the bones for 1-2  hours to remove any remaining meat and fat. Then dry them thoroughly using an oven, dehydrator, or air-drying. Grinding the bones into a fine powder can be done with a mortar and pestle, rolling pin, or blender. Steaming the bones before grinding can help soften them. Maintain a clean workspace to avoid cross-contamination and carry out each step with care, taking necessary precautions to ensure cleanliness.

People also ask

What are the best ways to use bone meal in gardening?

Bone meal is an excellent source of phosphorus and calcium for your plants and is best used in gardening by incorporating it into the soil during planting or adding it as a top dressing to established plants. It is particularly beneficial for bulbs, root crops, and flowering plants, as phosphorus helps promote strong root development and vibrant blooms. To use bone meal most effectively, mix it into the soil where it will be readily available to plant roots.

How much bone meal should be added to soil?

The amount of bone meal to add to the soil depends on the specific needs of your plants and the existing nutrient levels in your soil. Generally, it is recommended to apply 2 to 4 pounds of bone meal per 100 square feet of garden area. However, it is always a good practice to conduct a soil test to determine the appropriate amount of bone meal to apply, as too much phosphorus can lead to nutrient imbalances and harm your plants.

What plants benefit the most from bone meal?

Plants that benefit the most from adding bone meal fertilizer will include those with high phosphorus requirements, such as bulbs, root crops, and flowering plants. Examples of these plants are tulips, daffodils, potatoes, carrots, tomatoes, and roses. These plants typically respond well to the application of bone meal, as it provides the necessary nutrients to support strong roots and bountiful blooms. Be sure to apply bone meal according to the needs of your specific plants and the existing conditions in your soil.

Can bone meal be made in a liquid form?

While bone meal is typically available as a dry, granular product, it can also be made into a liquid form for easier application to the soil or as a foliar spray. To create a liquid bone meal, mix the dry product with water according to the manufacturer’s instructions. This liquid form may offer advantages in efficient nutrient absorption by plants, especially when the pH balance of the soil is not optimal for phosphorus uptake. However, keep in mind that liquid bone meal may not be as long-lasting as the granular form, so regular applications may be necessary to maintain adequate nutrient levels.

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Oliver Wright
Oliver Wright

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